Walter Lippmann, a famous American communication scholar, once put forward the "stereotype" theory in his early works. "The subtler and most pervasive of all images," he says, "is the storage of creating and maintaining stereotypes. We've been told what the world is like before we've seen it. Therefore, mass media also plays a very important role in the construction of social culture and other upper levels of consciousness.
Women are supposed to be weak, and women are valued for how much they can please men. Since most of our knowledge of the order of things is based on our imagination and then our experience, these deep-rooted, premise-oriented views would have dominated our entire cognitive process if education had not made us aware of the unreasonableness. The formation of a stereotype not only has the influence of traditional cultural factors but also has the general recognition of a group of people. For example, when we mention female doctors, it is necessary to associate them with such words as “difficult" and "arrogant". However, the stereotype of female doctoral students comes from the dissemination of media culture. Most people have no real contact with or an in-depth understanding of this group and do not understand what their life and work are like. In fact, the female doctoral community is not as portrayed in the media. But this kind of inherent prejudice in people's minds has formed stereotypes, which cannot be separated from the influence of media.
As a kind of new media, the Internet has more and more power to speak. The influence of media on female images is mainly shaped by male standards, which further deepens the stereotype of the gender division of labor in real society. women are described as"beautiful", "charming" and "elegant". These labels all point to the objectification of women, who are subordinate, appreciated, loved and even consumed. According to the research, the proportion of male netizens is much higher than that of female netizens. In addition, in real life, men's economic power and participation in discussions are much higher than women's. Therefore, female netizens are inevitably influenced by men's potential aesthetic value. Fashion, home, shopping, emotion, and other women's everything, is also based on the taste and vision of men shaping women's life fairy tale. Female images in new media often become objects of male desire in the process of shaping. A male-centered visual culture often places women in the position of being seen. Women are not only the aesthetic objects of men but also the objects of men's desire. In such media culture communication, women who conform to the male aesthetic standards have become the female aesthetic standards of the society, which constantly changes the female aesthetic standards and their own cognition. In media culture, women are portrayed as objects of appreciation and enjoyment by men, rather than as partners at work or competitors in sports. Men naturally believe that women should play the role of wife and mother, only the family is a normal woman's battlefield. For example, women are usually depicted as housewives and other traditional images in advertisements or films. Even when they are professional women, they are mainly in secretary, nurse, and other auxiliary occupations. In contrast, men are described as husbands and fathers, but also as leaders, businessmen, and scientists. In terms of representing the female professional relationship, the male role is usually the boss or boss, which is a higher position than the female position. Even in online games, the majority of games aimed at women are dress-changing or housework games. Postmodern research reveals that inequality inevitably occurs in binary constructs such as that which would naturally occur with male and female games.
In addition, when a woman is harmed, the victim is blamed, especially in the case of rape. It has been suggested through past research that battered women still face negative stereotypes and they are not well understood by the public (Ayyildiz, 1996; Callahan, 1995; Goodmark, 2009; Jenkins & Davidson, 1990; Mahoney, 1991; Russell & Melillo; 2006; Schneider, 1986; Terrance & Matheson, 2003).
Cross-cultural comparative study shows that the media's shaping of female images is influenced by social and cultural factors. Sengupra compared American and Japanese ads and found that women in American ads were more likely to play professional roles, such as senior business executives, while women in Japanese ads were more likely to appear as entertainers. When reflecting on the role of women in the family, American advertisements show a higher proportion of women doing leisure activities at home, while Japanese advertisements show women doing more housework such as cooking and laundry. According to Gallagher, "in a few countries, such as China and the socialist countries in Western Europe, the media have a strong sense of identity and mission for women's liberation due to the government's regulation.
British Journal of Educational Technology (2006) Vol 37 No 5. “Girl gamers: the controversy of girl games and the relevance of female-oriented game design for instructional design ” Michele D. Dickey [online] Available at: https://booksc.xyz/book/9545766/13df57
Bauman, Sonja, "Battered Women Who Kill: Stereotype Influence Through The Media" (2018). Theses and Dissertations. 2165. https://commons.und.edu/theses/2165 Lehman, K. (2014). Woman, Divided: Gender, Family, and Multiple Personalities in Media. The Journal of American Culture, 37(1), pp.64-73.